Caldwell KA, Shu Y, Roberts NB, Caldwell GA, O'Donnell JM. Invertebrate models of dystonia. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2013 Jan;11(1):16-29. PMID: 23814534; PMCID: PMC3580786.
From the abstract: "Despite the substantial advances resulting from the identification of these loci, the function of many DYT gene products remains unclear. ... [Worm and fly] models are particularly amenable to large-scale genetic screens for modifiers or additional alleles, which are bolstering our understanding of the molecular functions associated with these gene products. Moreover, the use of invertebrate models for the evaluation of DYT genetic loci and their genetic interaction networks has predictive value and can provide a path forward for therapeutic intervention."