Friday, October 26, 2012

Bugs & Guts. Recent Report.

In conversation, biologists often use "bugs" to refer to bacteria. This open access report uses the fly as a model to explore the relationship between gastric cancer and infection with the 'bug' Helicobacter pylori, which the authors note is a major risk factor for gastric cancer.

Wandler AM, Guillemin K. Transgenic Expression of the Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factor CagA Promotes Apoptosis or Tumorigenesis through JNK Activation in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2012 Oct;8(10):e1002939. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002939. PubMed PMID: 23093933.

Monday, October 22, 2012

Genetic link related to Parkinson's identified in flies is not reproduced in mammals. Recent report.

Trancikova A, Mamais A, Webber PJ, Stafa K, Tsika E, Glauser L, West AB, Bandopadhyay R, Moore DJ. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 in the Mammalian Brain Is Not Altered by LRRK2 Expression or Pathogenic Mutations. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47784. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047784. PubMed PMID: 23082216.

Saturday, October 20, 2012

Using the fly to study Epstein Barr virus replication. Recent report

In this open access paper, the authors report introducing the Epstein Barr virus gene BRLF1 into flies using a fly eye-specific driver of expression, then identifying host genes that interact with BRLF1.

Adamson A, LaJeunesse D. A study of Epstein-Barr virus BRLF1 activity in a Drosophila model system. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:347597. doi:10.1100/2012/347597. PubMed PMID: 22629134; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3353302.

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Huntington's Disease. Fly model in action. Recent report.

These authors report a study in which they supplement studies in mammalian models with an assay in "eye degeneration of eye-specific mtHtt (Q127) expressing flies."

Lee J, Hong YK, Jeon GS, Hwang YJ, Kim KY, Seong KH, Jung MK, Picketts DJ, Kowall NW, Cho KS, Ryu H. ATRX induction by mutant huntingtin via Cdx2 modulates heterochromatin condensation and pathology in Huntington's disease. Cell Death Differ. 2012 Jul;19(7):1109-16. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2011.196. PubMed PMID: 22240898; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3374076.

Similar fly stocks in which expanded repeat forms of human HTT are expressed in the eye or via an inducible promoter are available from the BDSC.

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Host-pathogen interactions in model systems. Recent review.

This recent review discusses what's known and open questions regarding host-pathogen interactions as studied in model systems, specifically with biofilms in mind.

Edwards S, Kjellerup BV. Exploring the applications of invertebrate host-pathogen models for in vivo biofilm infections. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012 Jul;65(2):205-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00975.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 22533965.

Among other things, the review includes a discussion of a fly-based approach to sub-categorizing bacteria isolated from infections in cystic fibrosis patients.

Sibley CD, Duan K, Fischer C, Parkins MD, Storey DG, Rabin HR, Surette MG. Discerning the complexity of community interactions using a Drosophila model of polymicrobial infections. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Oct;4(10):e1000184. Epub 2008 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 18949036; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2566602.

Fly models of neurodevelopmental diseases. Recent review.

This review includes a table of fly models for Angelman Syndrome, Coffin-Lowry Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 1, and Periventricular Nodular Heterotropia.

Okray Z, Hassan BA. Genetic approaches in Drosophila for the Study Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Oct 12. pii:S0028-3908(12)00479-0. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.09.007. PubMed PMID: 23067575.

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

New fly model of genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. Recent report.

In this study, researchers introduce a human disease-associated mutation into the fly ortholog of SCN1A, para.

Sun L, Gilligan J, Staber C, Schutte RJ, Nguyen V, O'Dowd DK, Reenan R. A knock-in model of human epilepsy in Drosophila reveals a novel cellular mechanism associated with heat-induced seizure. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 10;32(41):14145-55. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2932-12.2012. PubMed PMID: 23055484.

Paraquat, Polyphenols & Parkinsonism. Recent Report.

Bonilla-Ramirez L, Jimenez-Del-Rio M, Velez-Pardo C. Low doses of paraquat and polyphenols prolong life span and locomotor activity in knock-down parkin Drosophila melanogaster exposed to oxidative stress stimuli: Implication in autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. Gene. 2012 Oct 6. pii: S0378-1119(12)01229-2. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.09.120. PubMed PMID: 23046578.

Inflammatory bowel disease and the fly. Recent review.

This review introduces the fly gut system, summarizes major pathways invoked in gut-microbe responses and talks about gut homeostasis. The results and approaches discussed might impact our understanding of human diseases of the digestive system, including inflammatory bowel disease.

Charroux B, Royet J. Gut-microbiota interactions in non-mammals: what can we learn from Drosophila? Semin Immunol. 2012 Feb;24(1):17-24. Epub 2012 Jan 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 22284578.

Fly model of SMA. SMN in Neural Network Activity. Recent Report.

Imlach WL, Beck ES, Choi BJ, Lotti F, Pellizzoni L, McCabe BD. SMN Is Required for Sensory-Motor Circuit Function in Drosophila. Cell. 2012 Oct 12;151(2):427-39. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.011. PubMed PMID: 23063130.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Fly model of mitochondrial dysfunction. Relevance to neurodegenerative diseases. Recent report.

Humphrey DM, Parsons RB, Ludlow ZN, Riemensperger T, Esposito G, Verstreken P, Jacobs HT, Birman S, Hirth F. Alternative oxidase rescues mitochondria-mediated dopaminergic cell loss in Drosophila. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Jun 15;21(12):2698-712. PubMed PMID: 22398207.

Tuesday, October 9, 2012

Fly genetic study and gastric cancer. Recent report.

These authors describe screening for modifiers of the effects of expression of gastric cancer-associated mutant gene forms in the fly eye. Follow-up included a chick assay of angiogenesis.

Caldeira J, Simões-Correia J, Paredes J, Pinto MT, Sousa S, Corso G, Marrelli D, Roviello F, Pereira PS, Weil D, Oliveira C, Casares F, Seruca R. CPEB1, a novel gene silenced in gastric cancer: a Drosophila approach. Gut. 2012 Aug;61(8):1115-23. PubMed PMID: 22052064.

The candidate they followed up on is the fly orb gene (CPEB1 in humans).

Flies, Smoke and Parkinson's. Recent Report.

Hill-Burns EM, Singh N, Ganguly P, Hamza TH, Montimurro J, Kay DM, Yearout D, Sheehan P, Frodey K, McLear JA, Feany MB, Hanes SD, Wolfgang WJ, Zabetian CP, Factor SA, Payami H. A genetic basis for the variable effect of smoking/nicotine on Parkinson's disease. Pharmacogenomics J. 2012 Oct 2. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2012.38. PubMed PMID: 23032990.

Thursday, October 4, 2012

Fly model of muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy.

These reports utilize flies mutant for sarcoglycan (Sgcd), which the authors describe as a fly model of muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. Fly Sgcd is related to human SGCD

Both papers are freely available.

Allikian MJ, Bhabha G, Dospoy P, Heydemann A, Ryder P, Earley JU, Wolf MJ, Rockman HA, McNally EM. Reduced life span with heart and muscle dysfunction in Drosophila sarcoglycan mutants. Hum Mol Genet. 2007 Dec 1;16(23):2933-43. PubMed PMID: 17855453.

Goldstein JA, Kelly SM, LoPresti PP, Heydemann A, Earley JU, Ferguson EL, Wolf MJ, McNally EM. SMAD signaling drives heart and muscle dysfunction in a Drosophila model of muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Mar 1;20(5):894-904. PubMed PMID: 21138941; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3033181.

Here's an alignment of fly Sgcd and human SGCD, as well as other info, from DIOPT (click "view" from DIOPT or the DIOPT score from DIOPT-DIST to reach this page).

Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Inventory of fly peroxisomal proteins. Links to diseases. Recent report.

This recent paper catalogs fly peroxisomal proteins.

Faust JE, Verma A, Peng C, McNew JA. An Inventory of Peroxisomal Proteins and Pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. Traffic. 2012 Oct;13(10):1378-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2012.01393.x. PubMed PMID: 22758915; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3443258.

Disruption of peroxisomal-related factors in humans can cause peroxisomal biogenesis disorders such as Zellweger syndrome. Additional relevant disease terms include peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, Refsum disease, and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. You can read about peroxisomal biogenesis disorders at Gene Reviews (includes information about human disease-associated genes).

Evolutionary conservation? The answer appears to be yes. From the paper, "We have identified all of the major vertebrate peroxisomal pathways in Drosophila."

At least these three papers discuss fly models of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders.

Mast FD, Li J, Virk MK, Hughes SC, Simmonds AJ, Rachubinski RA. A Drosophila model for the Zellweger spectrum of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Dis Model Mech. 2011 Sep-Oct;4(5):659-72. doi: 10.1242/dmm.007419. PubMed PMID: 21669930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3180231.

Nakayama M, Sato H, Okuda T, Fujisawa N, Kono N, Arai H, Suzuki E, Umeda M, Ishikawa HO, Matsuno K. Drosophila carrying pex3 or pex16 mutations are models of Zellweger syndrome that reflect its symptoms associated with the absence of peroxisomes. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e22984. PubMed PMID: 21826223; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3149631.

Chen H, Liu Z, Huang X. Drosophila models of peroxisomal biogenesis disorder: peroxins are required for spermatogenesis and very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Feb 1;19(3):494-505. PubMed PMID: 19933170.

Publication searches. Multiple tools.

A search with "Drosophila disease model" calls up different results in Quertle, Google Scholar and PubMed. And the three tools provide different search options. Check it out.

Monday, October 1, 2012

Cancer and the immune response. Recent report.

This recent report looks at the influence of infection in a fly model of cancer (Ras1[V12] model).

Bangi E, Pitsouli C, Rahme LG, Cagan R, Apidianakis Y. Immune response to bacteria induces dissemination of Ras-activated Drosophila hindgut cells. EMBO Rep. 2012 Jun 1;13(6):569-76. doi: 10.1038/embor.2012.44. PubMed PMID: 22498775; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3367237.

A-beta and zinc transport. Recent report.

This open access paper focuses on the potential role of a zinc transporter in Alzheimer's disease.

Lang M, Wang L, Fan Q, Xiao G, Wang X, Zhong Y, Zhou B. Genetic inhibition of solute-linked carrier 39 family transporter 1 ameliorates aβ pathology in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. PLoS Genet. 2012;8(4):e1002683. PubMed PMID: 22570624; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3343105.

They indicate that they use the fly A-beta42 model reported here:  Iijima et al. (2008) Abeta 42 Mutants with Different Aggregation Profiles Induce Distinct Pathologies in Drosophila. PLoS ONE 3: e1703. PubMed ID: 18301778 PubMed Central ID: PMC225077

Click to view a recent post on a chemical inhibitor of A-beta.