Manole A, Jaunmuktane Z, Hargreaves I, Ludtmann MHR, Salpietro V, Bello OD, Pope S, Pandraud A, Horga A, Scalco RS, Li A, Ashokkumar B, Lourenço CM, Heales S, Horvath R, Chinnery PF, Toro C, Singleton AB, Jacques TS, Abramov AY, Muntoni F, Hanna MG, Reilly MM, Revesz T, Kullmann DM, Jepson JEC, Houlden H. Clinical, pathological and functional characterization of riboflavin-responsive neuropathy. Brain. 2017 Nov 1;140(11):2820-2837. PMID: 29053833.
From the abstract: "Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. ... By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome ... global knockdown of the single Drosophila melanogaster riboflavin transporter homologue revealed reduced levels of riboflavin, downstream metabolites, and electron transport chain complex I activity ... Riboflavin transporter knockdown in Drosophila also resulted in severely impaired locomotor activity and reduced lifespan, mirroring patient pathology ... Our findings expand the genetic, clinical and neuropathological features of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, implicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a downstream consequence of riboflavin transporter gene defects, and validate riboflavin esters as a potential therapeutic strategy."