Kwon Y, Song W, Droujinine IA, Hu Y, Asara JM, Perrimon N. Systemic Organ Wasting Induced by Localized Expression of the Secreted Insulin/IGF Antagonist ImpL2. Dev Cell. 2015 Apr 6;33(1):36-46. PMID: 25850671.
From the abstract: "Organ wasting, related to changes in nutrition and metabolic activity of cells and tissues, is observed under conditions of starvation and in the context of diseases, including cancers. We have developed a model for organ wasting in adult Drosophila .... These organ-wasting phenotypes are associated with a reduction in systemic insulin/IGF signaling due to increased expression of the secreted insulin/IGF antagonist ImpL2 from the overproliferating gut. ..."
Figueroa-Clarevega A, Bilder D. Malignant Drosophila Tumors Interrupt Insulin Signaling to Induce Cachexia-like Wasting. Dev Cell. 2015 Apr 6;33(1):47-55. PMID: 25850672.
From the abstract: "Tumors kill patients not only through well-characterized perturbations
to their local environment but also through poorly understood
pathophysiological interactions with distant tissues. ... We identify the insulin growth factor binding
protein (IGFBP) homolog ImpL2, an antagonist of insulin signaling, as a
secreted factor mediating wasting. ImpL2 is sufficient to drive tissue
loss, and insulin activity is reduced in peripheral tissues of
tumor-bearing hosts. ..."