Ishikawa K, Nagai Y. Molecular Mechanisms and Future Therapeutics for Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31 (SCA31). Neurotherapeutics. 2019 Nov 21. PubMed PMID: 31755042.
From the abstract: "Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) is one of the autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorders that shows progressive cerebellar ataxia as a cardinal symptom. This disease is caused by a 2.5- to 3.8-kb-long complex pentanucleotide repeat containing (TGGAA)n, (TAGAA)n, (TAAAA)n, and (TAAAATAGAA)n in an intron of the gene called BEAN1 (brain expressed, associated with Nedd4). ... To dissect the pathogenesis of (UGGAA)n in SCA31, we generated transgenic fly models of SCA31 by overexpressing SCA31 complex pentanucleotide repeats in Drosophila. We found that the toxicity of (UGGAA)n is length- and expression level-dependent, and it was dampened by co-expressing TDP-43, FUS, and hnRNP A2/B1. ..."