Freibaum BD, Lu Y, Lopez-Gonzalez R, Kim NC, Almeida S, Lee KH, Badders N, Valentine M, Miller BL, Wong PC, Petrucelli L, Kim HJ, Gao FB, Taylor JP. GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 compromises nucleocytoplasmic transport. Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):129-33. PMID: 26308899.
From the abstract: "The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. ... To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. ... These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration. "
Zhang K, Donnelly CJ, Haeusler AR, Grima JC, Machamer JB, Steinwald P, Daley EL, Miller SJ, Cunningham KM, Vidensky S, Gupta S, Thomas MA, Hong I, Chiu SL, Huganir RL, Ostrow LW, Matunis MJ, Wang J, Sattler R, Lloyd TE, Rothstein JD. The C9orf72 repeat expansion disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport. Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):56-61. PMID: 26308891.
From the abstract: "... A
candidate-based genetic screen in Drosophila expressing 30 G4C2 repeats
identified RanGAP (Drosophila orthologue of human RanGAP1), a key
regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as a potent suppressor of
neurodegeneration. Enhancing nuclear import or suppressing nuclear
export of proteins also suppresses neurodegeneration. RanGAP physically
interacts with HRE RNA and is mislocalized in HRE-expressing flies,
neurons from C9orf72 ALS patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells
(iPSC-derived neurons), and in C9orf72 ALS patient brain tissue. Nuclear
import is impaired as a result of HRE expression in the fly model and
in C9orf72 iPSC-derived neurons, and these deficits are rescued by small
molecules and antisense oligonucleotides targeting the HRE
G-quadruplexes. Nucleocytoplasmic transport defects may be a fundamental
pathway for ALS and FTD that is amenable to pharmacotherapeutic
See also comment in: Fox BW, Tibbetts RS. Neurodegeneration: Problems at the nuclear pore. Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):36-7. PMID: 26308896.